Dart Classes and Objects

Are you ready to take your Dart programming skills to the next level? If so, it's time to dive into the world of classes and objects! These powerful tools allow you to create complex, reusable code that can be used across multiple projects. In this article, we'll explore the basics of Dart classes and objects, and show you how to use them to build better software.

What are Classes and Objects?

At their core, classes and objects are simply blueprints for creating new data types. A class defines a set of properties and methods that describe the behavior of a particular type of object. An object, on the other hand, is an instance of a class - a specific realization of the blueprint.

Think of a class as a recipe for a cake. The recipe defines the ingredients and steps needed to create the cake, but it doesn't actually make the cake itself. That's where the object comes in - it's the actual cake that you can eat and enjoy.

Defining a Class

To define a class in Dart, you use the class keyword followed by the name of the class. Here's a simple example:

class Person {
  String name;
  int age;

This defines a Person class with two properties: name and age. The String and int types are used to specify the data types of these properties.

Creating Objects

Once you've defined a class, you can create objects of that class using the new keyword. Here's how you would create a new Person object:

var person = new Person();

This creates a new Person object and assigns it to the person variable. By default, the name and age properties of the object are set to null.

Accessing Properties

To access the properties of an object, you use the dot notation. Here's how you would set the name and age properties of the person object:

person.name = 'Alice';
person.age = 30;

You can also access the properties of an object using the get and set keywords. This allows you to define custom behavior for accessing and modifying the properties of an object. Here's an example:

class Person {
  String _name;
  int _age;

  String get name => _name;
  set name(String value) => _name = value;

  int get age => _age;
  set age(int value) => _age = value;

In this example, we've defined private properties _name and _age, and exposed them using getters and setters. The get keyword defines a getter method that returns the value of the property, while the set keyword defines a setter method that sets the value of the property.


In addition to properties, classes can also define methods - functions that are associated with the class. Here's an example:

class Person {
  String name;
  int age;

  void sayHello() {
    print('Hello, my name is $name and I am $age years old.');

This defines a sayHello method that prints a greeting message using the name and age properties of the object. To call this method, you simply use the dot notation:



Constructors are special methods that are used to create new objects of a class. By default, Dart provides a default constructor that takes no arguments. However, you can define your own constructors to provide custom behavior when creating objects.

Here's an example of a custom constructor:

class Person {
  String name;
  int age;

  Person(String name, int age) {
    this.name = name;
    this.age = age;

This defines a constructor that takes two arguments - name and age - and sets the corresponding properties of the object. To create a new Person object using this constructor, you would do the following:

var person = new Person('Alice', 30);


Inheritance is a powerful feature of object-oriented programming that allows you to create new classes based on existing ones. In Dart, you can define a new class that inherits from an existing class using the extends keyword.

Here's an example:

class Student extends Person {
  String major;

  Student(String name, int age, String major) : super(name, age) {
    this.major = major;

  void sayHello() {
    print('Hello, my name is $name and I am a $major major.');

In this example, we've defined a Student class that inherits from the Person class. The Student class adds a new major property and overrides the sayHello method to include the major in the greeting message.


Classes and objects are essential tools for building complex, reusable code in Dart. By defining classes and creating objects, you can create custom data types that can be used across multiple projects. With inheritance, you can build on existing classes to create new, more specialized classes.

We hope this article has given you a solid foundation in the basics of Dart classes and objects. With this knowledge, you'll be well on your way to building better software with Dart!

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